Thomas Gangale holds a Doctor of Juridical Sciences degree in space, cyber and telecommunications law, a Master of Arts degree in international relations, and a Bachelor of Science degree in aerospace engineering. He was both an enlisted and an officer in the US Air Force, serving as an air traffic controller and an F-4 weapon systems officer. Also while on active duty, he served on the technical management teams of several satellite projects involving national technical means of verification of strategic arms control agreements (including Hexagon and Gambit), as well as a Strategic Defense Initiative satellite program and two Space Shuttle payloads (STS-4 and STS-39). He has published numerous articles in law, aerospace, social science, and literary journals, has written opinion editorials in major metropolitan newspapers, and has appeared as a guest on national and international radio talk shows. He is a leading authority on timekeeping systems for other planets, and is the inventor of a class of orbits that will be essential to communication between Earth and crews in the vicinity of Mars. He is the author of the American Plan for reforming the presidential nomination process.